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Occupational Hygiene Monitoring: Stressors
  • Physical Stressors

    1. Area Noise (Noise Zoning) and Personal Noise Monitoring

    The Occupational Health and Safety Act as well as the Mine Health and Safety Act requires that the exposure levels of employees to noise in their working environment be determined and reported on should the exposure levels exceed the prescribed noise rating limits and that mitigating measures be implemented to reduce such high noise levels.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating noise assessments under the OHS Act and conducting noise assessments under the MHS Act and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    2. Vibration Exposure Monitoring

    Human vibration is the assessment of vibration present in the working environment and how the human body is affected by vibrating tools, equipment, working stations and vehicles. Hand tools, machinery and heavy vehicles are all sources of vibration. The risk of exposure is determined by the intensity, frequency and time of exposure and the impact that vibration has on the human body causes various symptoms and disorders.

    Human Vibration can be divided into two subcategories:

    a) Whole Body Vibration (WBV) risks are encountered in the construction, agriculture, forestry, mining and transportation sectors and is a source of various symptoms like back problems, discomfort, visual and nervous system disorders, motion sickness and disorders of the reproductive and digestive systems.

    b) Hand Arm Vibration (HAV) risks are encountered in the mining, iron and steel, construction, fabrication and forestry sectors and is a source of various symptoms like muscular, vascular, joint, neurological and bone disorders.

    One of the most serious HAV disorders is called white finger syndrome (Reynaud’s Syndrome) caused by working in cold environments with vibrating hand tools. The vibrating hand tools causes vasoconstriction to the extremities and due to the loss in blood flow to these areas, the affected parts suffers irreversible damage and in extreme cases, the sufferer may lose his fingers. The effects are cumulative. When symptoms first appear, they may disappear after a short time. If exposure to vibration continues over months or years, the symptoms can worsen and become permanent.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating vibration assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    3. Thermal Stress (Heat and Cold) Exposure Monitoring

    Thermal conditions in Southern Africa is of such a nature that heatstroke and heat stress is the biggest concern and can be classified as a substantial risk to the health and safety of employees in their working environment. Cold stress conditions are limited to mechanical environments (cold rooms, freezer rooms, etc.) and in areas where the winter temperatures regularly fall below zero.
    The monitoring of thermal stressors in the working environment is prescribed in Section 2 of the Environmental Regulations for Workplaces as contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and prescribes that no employer shall require or permit an employee to work in thermal conditions (heat and cold) that exceeds the allowable exposure limits without implementing reasonable measures to protect such employee against thermal extremes and takes all precautions necessary for the safety of such an employee.

    Regulation 9.2 of the Mine Health and Safety Act requires that the employer establishes and maintains a system of occupational hygiene measurements where the prescribed exposure limits are exceeded for thermal stressors (heat and cold).

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating thermal stress assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    4. Illuminance Monitoring in the Workplace

    Artificial lighting sources have become a major source of luminance in today’s working environment where the majority of workspaces are on the inside of buildings (factories, offices, operating theatres, etc.) and the utilisation of natural illuminance as the main source of light is limited.

    Although architects these days realise the importance of applying green building designs due to the high cost of electricity and the current social expectations from the general public to reduce the use of light sources that have a high energy consumption, there are certain legal requirements that the employer must comply to when making use of artificial light sources as the main source of illuminance as well as emergency lighting for evacuation purposes.

    Section 3 of the Environmental Regulations for Workplaces as contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and the table of illuminance values, stipulates the minimum average illuminance levels that should be maintained in the working environment.

    Regulation 9.2.9 of the Mine Health and Safety Act stipulates that the employer is responsible for maintaining sufficient illumination levels in the working environment. Although Regulation 9.2.9 does not stipulate the required illumination levels that must be maintained in the working environment, the table of illuminance values contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act is adopted as an industry best practice guideline for compliance.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating illumination assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    5. Non-Ionising Radiation (NIR)

    Non-Ionising Radiation (NIR) describes two areas of the electromagnetic spectrum, the first is optical radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared) followed by electromagnetic fields (EMF’s: power frequencies, microwaves and radio frequencies). NIR is found in various working environments and can have adverse health effects on employees being exposed to welding, heating, cutting, lasers and wireless communication sources.

    The health risks associated with exposure to NIR includes skin burns, cataracts, melanoma, central nervous system, deep organ and tissue heating and damage. It is common knowledge that exposure to EMF can result in an increase in adverse health effects, but it must be noted that these cases are not wide spread and should not be a problem to the general workforce.

    Non-Ionising Radiation is covered under the Hazardous Substances Act (HSA, No.15 of 1973) and the Department of Health Directorate: Non-Ionising Radiation and Electromedical Devices, is responsible for overseeing and regulating all NIR sources. Assessing the risk of exposures to NIR is covered under the general duties of an employer to assess risk in the working environment as prescribed under the Occupational Health and Safety Act as well as the Mine Health and Safety Act and guidance is given under Directive 2006/25/EC Optical Radiation Directive for the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risk arising from physical agents (artificial optical radiation).

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating non-ionising radiation assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    6. Ionising Radiation

    Ionising Radiation means radiation that can pass through matter and cause it to become electrically charged (ionised). Ions produced by radiation can negatively impact the living cells in the human body. Ionisation is a sign of radiation produced when radioactive elements decay. Due to its intensity it can remove the electrons from atoms in matter and therein lies the risk to human health.

    Ionizing Radiation is in general harmful to human health and potentially lethal to living organisms but does have some health benefits through radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. The main benefit to human health, of ionising radiation, is in the treatment of cancerous growths through radiation therapy that can stop the growth of tumours. Controlled doses are used for medical imaging and radiotherapy but prolonged or repeated exposure to ionising radiation can result in adverse health effects.

    High amounts of ionising radiation exposure can result in genetic defects, cancers or tumours and even death.

    In the South African mining industry, ionising radiation is covered under the Nuclear Energy Act of 1999. In the past it required all mines producing or mining uranium as a by-product, and later all gold mines to obtain a Certificate of Registration. Today this requirement extends to all mines and places the responsibility on them for nuclear regulatory control and the National Nuclear Regulator enforces compliance under the National Nuclear Regulations Act (NNRA No. 47 of 1999) and the Mine Health and Safety Act. The Mine Health and Safety Act prescribes the monitoring requirements to ensure that no person is exposed to ionising radiation as a result from mining activities.

    Low levels of uranium is contained in the mineral deposits mined by some mines and the National Nuclear Regulator monitors and inspect the performance standards, conditions and procedures related to the processing of ore and tailing deposits at tailings dams to ensure that no exposure is present.

    Ionising Radiation and Radioactive Nuclides are covered under the Hazardous Substances Act (HSA, No.15 of 1973) and the Department of Health Directorate: Radiation Control is responsible for overseeing and regulating ionising radiation exposures. Assessing the risk of exposures to ionising radiation is covered under the general duties of an employer to assess risk in the working environment as prescribed under the Occupational Health and Safety Act and should be incorporated into an Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating ionising radiation assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified
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    7. Ergonomic Assessments

    Ergonomics plays an integral part in today’s working environment and the interaction of employees with their working environment. Employees have to overcome the compatibility challenges faced by design, implementation or integration of work positions and environments that have a negative impact on their health and safety.

    Various pieces of legislation makes reference to ergonomic standards and requirements, Section 8 of the Facilities Regulations, as contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, makes limited provision for the assessment of ergonomics in the working environment by referring to seating. Section 7.6 of the Construction Regulations, as contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, requires that ergonomic related hazards must be identified. Circular Instruction 180 as contained in the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes reference to Work Related Upper Limb Disorders and Section 22.1 of the Mine Health and Safety Act refers to the requirements placed on any person that designs, manufactures, erects or installs any article on a mine to take ergonomic principals into consideration.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating ergonomic assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    8. Indoor Air Quality Assessments

    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within a working environment and focuses primarily on the office environment. Indoor Air Quality (Sick Building Syndrome) can be affected by numerous physical stressors (lighting, noise, thermal discomfort, etc.), chemical stressors (gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds and dust particulates: asbestos) and biological stressors and includes the monitoring of microbial contaminants (mould, bacteria, etc.).

    Central ventilation systems are mainly used in the indoor office environment to provide fresh air and remove, through filtration and dilution, any contaminated air within the working environment.

    Section 5 of the Environmental Regulations for Workplaces as contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act stipulates the requirements pertaining to the Indoor Air Quality in the working environment.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating indoor air quality assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    9. Local Extraction Ventilation (LEV) Assessments

    Local extraction ventilation systems (dust extraction plants, fume cupboards, etc.) are one of the main engineering control measures that is implemented to remove contaminants from the working area.

    Section 9.g of the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations, as contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, requires that investigations and tests are carried out on the local extraction ventilation systems as per Section 12 of the same act, to determine that all control measures and facilities are in good working order, these records should be kept for a minimum of three (3) years.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating local extraction ventilation assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    10. Mine Ventilation

    Ventilation plays an integral part in the supply of fresh air to a working environment. Ventilation in the working environment is discussed under the sections for Indoor Air Quality and Local Extraction Ventilation and in this section the primary focus will be on Mine Ventilation Systems.

    The mining environment poses unique challenges to the health and safety of workers and underground ventilation plays an integral part in the control of these hazards. Underground mine ventilation supplies a constant flow of air through the mine and is utilised to provide fresh air for breathing purposes, but also for the dilution and removal of dust, diesel exhaust fumes, ionising radiation, gases and heat that is created during the underground mining activities.

    InDuna Risk Management is capable of planning, implementing and managing the underground ventilation requirements of the mine ventilation systems.
    Planning of the underground ventilation system requires that the short-term and long-term planning phases take into consideration the mine design and mining methods to ensure that the underground working environment is free from risk to employees and that the future ventilation requirements for any developments can be accommodated, thereby reducing the risk that production increases can be hampered due to the lack of sufficient underground ventilation supply.

    The implementation of the ventilation design is facilitated through a hands-on approach with active participation from the ventilation specialist in the day-to-day development of the mine by providing guidance to the development team in matters related to the ventilation requirements of the project.

    Once the planning and implementation phases of the project has reached completion, the day-to-day management of the ventilation system is maintained by a team of on-site ventilation specialists that monitor the underground mining conditions through regular assessments and by introducing changes in the underground ventilation system based on additional planning to ensure optimal utilisation of the available ventilated air, and ultimately implementing expansions based on the long-term planning requirements identified during the initial phase of the mining project.

  • Chemical Stressors

      1. Hazardous Chemical Substance Monitoring

      The Occupational Health and Safety Act as well as the Mine Health and Safety Act requires that the Hazardous Chemical Substances (HCS) exposure levels of employees in their working environment be determined and reported on, should the exposure levels exceed the prescribed Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL), mitigating measures must be implemented to reduce exposures to hazardous chemical substances that exceed the prescribed OEL.

      Under the guidelines of the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations set out in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, the employer is required to determine:
      a) The HCS to which an employee may be exposed to,
      b) What effects the HCS can have on an employee,
      c) Where the HCS may be present and in what physical form it is likely to be,
      d) The route of intake by which and the extent to which an employee can be exposed,
      e) The nature of work, process and any reasonable deterioration in, or failure of, any control measures.

      Once this information is obtained, together with the information gathered in the Baseline Health Risk Assessment process, a monitoring programme can be implemented to determine the extent of the exposure to HCS’s in the workplace.

      The monitoring programme should meet the requirements of the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations and the guidelines prescribed in the Guidance Note EH 42 of the Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom (Monitoring Strategies for Toxic Substances 1989 HSE ISBN 0 11885412 7) and the NIOSH OESSM document, whereby representative measurements should be carried out at least every twelve (12) months for HCS with a Control Limit (CL) and at least every twenty-four (24) months for a HCS with a Recommended Limit (RL).

      The HCS exposure levels obtained during the monitoring programme should be compared to the OEL as prescribed in the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations contained in the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Table 1 for HCS with a Control Limit and Table 2 for HCS with a Recommended Limit.

      It is important to note that any HCS listed in Table 1 can be classified as a suspected carcinogen to human health and exposure to these HCS’s should be taken seriously. Exposure levels should be reduced to the absolute minimum.

      Hazardous Chemical Substances listed in Table 1 and 2 are given Occupational Exposure Limits based on the inhalable/respirable particulate of such a HCS. Hazardous Chemical Substances in Table 3 are given Biological Exposure Indices (BEI) based on the absorption of such a HCS into the human body that converts to a specific metabolite and exposure can be monitored through obtaining a blood, urine or exhaled air sample to determine the extent of the employee’s exposure to a specific HCS.

      In some instances the Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme will include not only the monitoring of exposures to the hazardous chemical substances and comparing the results to the OEL’s in Table 1 and 2, but also include the comparison of the results from biological samples to the BEI’s in Table 3 to complement the monitoring programme.

      InDuna Risk Management assists clients by conducting the hazardous chemical substance monitoring for the mining sector and facilitating it for the industrial sector and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    2. DoL Silica Quartz Compliance Monitoring

    On the 27th June 2008, Mr Membathisi Mphumzi Shepherd Mdladlana, Minister of Labour, published a Government Notice No. R.683, amending the Occupational Exposure Control Limit for Silica in Table 1 of the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations from 0,4mg/m³ to 0,1mg/m³.

    This notice requires all industries handling, manufacturing and producing Silica dust to submit annual reports to the Department of Labour (DoL) starting from 1 January 2009 indicating the following:
    a) The number of samples taken and analysed,
    b) The chemical composition of the dust,
    c) The concentrations of the constituents,
    d) Whether compliance is achieved with the new Occupational Exposure Limit for Silica, if not complying, what steps are implemented to comply with the exposure limit within six months from the date of the notice being gazetted.

    As Silica Quartz is classified as a Table 1 HCS, an Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme requires that the employer conducts exposure monitoring every 12 months. The above Department of Labour directive supersedes the requirements of the Hazardous Chemical Substances Regulations and requires the employer to now compile an exposure monitoring programme that meets the NIOSH OEESM guidelines and conducts continuous exposure monitoring throughout the twelve (12) month period. The directive also requires that the employer reports the results of the monitoring programme to their office on an annual basis as per the Silica Exposure Compliance Tool document.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating the DoL Silica Quartz monitoring and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    3. Mine Health & Safety Act - Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme

    At the Mine Health and Safety Summit of 2003, the tripartite stakeholders in mining agreed to targets and milestones, which are aimed at addressing the major health and safety concerns of the sector. The milestones are considered to be intermediate steps to achieving targets of zero fatalities and injuries, silicosis elimination and the elimination of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Elimination of Silicosis:
    a) By December 2008, 95% of all exposure measurement results will be below the occupational exposure limit for respirable crystalline silica of 0.1mg/m3 (these results are individual readings and not average results).
    b) After December 2013, using present diagnostic techniques, no new cases of silicosis will occur among previously unexposed individuals. Previously unexposed individuals are individuals unexposed prior to 2008, that is, equivalent to a new person entering the industry in 2008.

    The Department of Mineral Resources’ (DMR) Directorate: Occupational Hygiene issued the South African Mines Occupational Hygiene Programme (SAMOHP) Codebook to give guidance to the employer with regard to establishing an Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme.

    The Occupational Hygiene sub-committee was mandated by the Mine Health and Safety Council to develop an Occupational Hygiene Database to record exposures to significant occupational hazards in the South African Mining Industry.

    Furthermore, Regulation 9.2(2) of the occupational hygiene regulations in conjunction with Section 12 of the Mine Health and Safety Act requires the employer to establish, maintain, and record the system of occupational measurements.

    Under Regulation 9.2(2), the employer must establish and maintain a system of occupational hygiene measurements, as contemplated in Section 12, of all working places where the following hazard limits prevail:

    a) Airborne Pollutants:
    - Particulates > 1/10 of the occupational exposure limit;
    - Gases and vapours > 1/2 of the occupational exposure limit;

    b) Thermal Stress:
    - Heat >25,0°C wet bulb and/or >32,0°C dry bulb and/or >32,0°C mean radiant
    temperature;
    - Cold <10°C equivalent chill temperature; and

    c) Noise:
    - >82dB LAeq,8h

    Regulation 9.2(7) requires that the employer must annually submit to the regional principal inspector of mines, on forms 21.9(2)(a); 21.9(2)(b); 21.9(2)(c) and 21.9(2)(d), respectively, prescribed in Chapter 21, and within 60 days from the end of the relevant annual reporting period as indicated on each form, reports which contains quarterly information on the airborne pollutant, heat stress, cold stress and noise aspects of the system of occupational hygiene measurements, established and maintained in terms of Regulation 9.2(2), covering the immediately preceding 12 months.

    The SAMOHP Codebook describes the steps that must be followed when implementing an Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme and requires reporting of the Physical and Chemical Stressors (Airborne Pollutants, Heat Stress, Cold Stress and Noise) to the Department of Mineral Resources on the above frequency.

    It is important to note that any Airborne Pollutant, in other words the exposure to any Hazardous Chemical Substance listed in Chapter 22, Schedule for Hazardous Chemical Substances (Silica Quartz, Diesel Particulate Matter, Welding Fumes, VOC’s, etc.) identified as a hazard to the health and safety of employees in their working environment during the Baseline Health Risk Assessment must be included into the Occupational Hygiene Monitoring Programme and reported on to the DMR.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by conducting the occupational hygiene assessments and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    4. Mine Health & Safety Act - Engineering Dust Sampling

    In 1997 the Department of Mineral Resources issued a directive requiring that the dust concentration levels (OEL) at the operator’s cab position on continuous mining machines be reduced to below 5 mg/m3. This directive was issued to determine the effectiveness of engineering controls (water sprays, scrubber systems, ventilation controls, etc.) implemented to reduce the dust emission levels created by continuous mining machines.

    This process requires that a pre-weighed sample, connected to a sampling pump, be positioned at the operating controls of the continuous mining machine during each production shift to collect the respirable dust particulates in the ambient environment. The samples are then returned back to the Laboratory for post-weight determination and the results are compared to the OEL for Engineering Samples.

    The results are communicated to the client via electronic means and samples exceeding the OEL requires an investigation into the reason for and the source of the high dust levels. Corrective actions can then be implemented to prevent a reoccurrence of the event.

    This monitoring strategy can also be utilised for determining the effectiveness of engineering control measures at tipping points, transfer points, crushing plants, etc.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by conducting the engineering dust sampling and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    5. Asbestos

    In the early 1900, asbestos was viewed as the wonder mineral due to its diverse applications and low cost. Asbestos was used in any thinkable product from flowerboxes, pots, roof sheeting, prefabricated buildings, insulation on boilers and furnaces, heaters, seals, fire resistant materials, sound proofing, vehicle brake pads and shoes, general insulation, water storage tanks, pipes and so the list goes on.

    The health risks associated with asbestos only became apparent long after this product was used in residential and industrial applications and by that time, for some people exposed to asbestos, it was too late and the silent killer had struck in all spheres of society, from the innocent child playing on the playgrounds next to the asbestos waste dumps to the town residents driving on the dirt roads used by the mine transport vehicles to take the asbestos bales to the railway siding. Asbestos took no hostages and it was too late to stop this monster.

    The use of asbestos was phased out from the early 1970s and it became illegal to mine, produce or manufacture asbestos containing products during the course of the late 1990s. The sad truth of asbestos is that because of its prolific abundance many people that have never worked with, or lived in an asbestos mining town are developing asbestos related illnesses by being exposed to asbestos containing products. The impact on society and health management systems are still to peak well into the future.

    Due to the impact that asbestos has on society the Asbestos Regulations were promulgated under the Occupational Health and Safety Act and this act prescribes very stringent guidelines for the identification, control and disposal of any asbestos containing materials.

    Therefore all employers are required to take heed of the prescribed regulations to ensure that no employee is exposed to asbestos containing materials in their working environment, the company supplied residential homes, their children going to the company school with prefabricated classrooms or the community centres with asbestos roof sheeting.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating asbestos assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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    6. Lead

    Lead is a highly poisonous heavy metal that affects numerous parts of the human body. The target organs for lead poisoning is the reproductive system, kidneys, heart, bone marrow and the central nervous system. Lead poisoning can also cause blood (anaemia) and brain disorders, miscarriages in pregnant women. Lead poisoning symptoms include abdominal pains, confusion, headache, anaemia, irritability, insomnia, delirium, cognitive deficits, tremors, hallucinations, convulsions, male reproductive problems and in severe cases seizures, coma, and death.

    As with asbestos, due to the impact that lead has on society the Lead Regulations were promulgated under the Occupational Health and Safety Act and this act prescribes very stringent guidelines for the identification, use, control and disposal of any lead containing materials.

    Therefore all workplaces where lead is produced, processed, used, handled or stored in a form in which it can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed by any person in that workplace are required to take heed of the prescribed regulations to ensure that no employee is exposed to lead containing materials in their working environment.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by facilitating lead assessments in the working environment and recommends the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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  • Biological Stressors

    Biological stressors are bacterium, viruses, protozoans, parasites or fungus that can be found in the workplace. Biological agents have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, resulting in death if not identified and contained.

    Many of these organisms are prevalent in the natural environment, where they are found in water, soil, plants or animals. Since many biological agents reproduce easily, they are also a potential danger in a wide variety of workplaces.

    As with asbestos and lead, and the impact that biological agents have on society, the Hazardous Biological Agents Regulations were promulgated under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. This act prescribes very stringent guidelines for the identification, use, control and disposal of any materials containing any hazardous biological agent.

    Therefore all workplaces where hazardous biological agents are produced, processed, used, handled, stored or transported in a form in which it can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed by any person in that workplace, are required to take heed of the prescribed regulations to ensure that no employee is exposed to any materials containing any hazardous biological agent, in their working environment.

    Some of the methods used to identify hazardous biological agents in the workplace is the collection of swab samples, growth plates, water samples, tissue samples and blood samples.

    InDuna Risk Management assists clients by collecting and analysing swab samples, growth plates and water samples in the working environment. We facilitate tissue and blood samples as required and recommend the best system of control to mitigate the risks identified.

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